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Energy Efficiency
The Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol of The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the foundation of most regulatory initiatives to control climate change.  Ratified by 186 countries (September 2008), the Protocol is a legally binding treaty committing industrialized countries to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions to 5.4% below 1990 levels, by 2012. More…
The Protocol provides three flexibility mechanisms which give the participating nations cost-effective means to achieve their targets. These are:
  1. Emissions trading.  This enables participating countries with emissions targets to purchase carbon savings from one another in order to fulfill their Kyoto commitments.
  2. Joint implementation (JI).  This allows developed countries to purchase carbon credits from Green House Gas (GHG) reduction projects implemented in another developed country or in a country with an economy in transition (the former communist countries of Eastern Europe).  Emission reductions from JI projects are called Emission Reduction Units (ERUs).
  3. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).  This is another project-based transaction system enabling industrialized countries access to carbon reductions by financing carbon reduction projects in developing countries.  Carbon savings from CDM projects are traded as Certified Emission Reductions (CERs).
Energy Efficient Lighting & the EU
As Lighting contributes circa 20% of energy usage with the European Union (EU) member states, there has been considerable emphasis on introducing Directives which will reduce and control the energy consumption of lighting within commercial and residential applications. The lighting industry and LIA, as a representative body are committed to the development and introduction of energy efficient lamps, control gear and luminaires. The following EU Directives are summarized below.
  • EU Energy Legislation
  • Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 2002/91/EC
The overall objective of the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive is to:
'Promote the improvement of energy performance of buildings within the Community taking into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate requirements and cost-effectiveness’
The way in which we light, heat and use our 25 million buildings contributes to almost 50 per cent of the total energy consumption and carbon emissions in the UK. It is vital that we make our buildings more energy efficient.
Even minor improvements to the energy performance of our buildings could have a considerable effect on our fuel bills and carbon emissions. Light sources consume a considerable proportion of the energy utilised within a building. Consequently, LIA and its members are constantly working to developing energy efficient light sources for new and retrofit applications.
Each EU member state was required to transpose the Directive into law by the beginning of 2006 with a further three years being allowed for full implementation of specific articles. 
Ecodesign of Energy using Products (EuP) 2005/32/EC
The EUP directive is a framework directive that harmonises requirements concerning the design of end use equipment. The directive merged two initiatives, the EEE directive (impact on the environment of Electrical and Electronic Equipment) and the EER directive (Energy Efficiency Requirements) to make a single directive. The new framework directive aims to ensure the integration of environmental aspects in the design & development of equipment and by setting eco design requirements.
EuP is defined as equipment which is dependent on energy input (electricity, fossil and renewable fuels) to work as intended and equipment for the generation, transfer and measurement of such energy. The eco-design requirements expect manufacturers to consider the entire life cycle of product groups and to assess the ecological profile of the equipment. This includes a life cycle analysis of equipment looking at:
  • Raw Materials
  • Acquisition
  • Manufacturing
  • Packaging, Transport and Distribution
  • Installation and Maintenance
  • Use
  • End of Life
At each phase of this manufacturers are required to assess consumption of materials and energy, emissions to air and water, pollution, expected waste and recycling/re-use.
The specific eco-design requirements may take the form of considering the reduced consumption of a given resource in the various stages of its life cycle, such as water or electricity. This requires a technical-economical analysis to be done to identify technical options for improving the environmental performance of the equipment. This analysis should then lead to a reduction in the environmental impact of the equipment. In the case of energy consumption in use, the level of energy consumption should be set at the life cycle cost minimum to the final users or Least Life Cycle Cost (LLCC).
Internal design control and an environmental management system are the procedures available to the producer for ensuring and declaring that its products satisfies the provisions of any applicable implementing measure.
Currently targeted for implementing measures are street lighting, office lighting and domestic lighting.
Presumption of conformity to the directive is through a CE mark as well as established EU schemes such as the Eco-Label.
LIA and its members are committed to designing lighting products which are Eco-friendly at every stage of the production process, thereby minimizing the impact on the environment.
Apart from the user's behaviour, there are two complementary ways of reducing the energy consumed by products:
  1. Labelling to raise awareness of consumers on the real energy use in order to influence their buying decisions (such aslabelling schemes for domestic appliances)
  2. Energy efficiency requirements imposed to products from the early stage on the design phase
Implementing Measures
EuP Energy Efficiency requirements for light sources fall into 2 distinct categories:
  1. Domestic Implementing Measures (DIM)
  2. Tertiary Implementing Measures (TIM)
Domestic Implementing Measure – Part 1
On 9th March 2007, EU Heads of State called for the European Commission to “rapidly submit proposals to enable increased energy efficiency requirements for incandescent lamps and other forms of lighting in private households by 2009”. The proposals take the form of Implementing Measures under the European Union’s EUP Directive. The EU also commissioned an independent study by a 3rd party consultant, Vito. On 13th April 2009, the Domestic Implementing Measures come into force with the following timetable:-
NB. Lamps for Special Purposes are excluded from the regulations i.e. incandescent oven/refrigerator lamps, fire-glow lamps, sun-tanning lamps etc.
Domestic Labelling
The main Packaging requirements which have now been agreed under the Ecodesign Drective are
  • New packaging requirements (pictograms) as of Sept 2010 (one year extension as per industry’s wish was accepted)
  • Requirement for mercury content to be added to packagingEnergy saving claim for Class A only
Some information needs to be incorporated on packaging whilst other information needs to be freely accessible via the manufacturers’ websites:
Domestic Implementing Measure – Part 2
Reflector i.e. directional lamps are being covered by a 2nd Domestic Implementation Measure which will be finalised in 2009. VITO (the EU’s COM technical consultants) are currently working on a definition of reflector lamps measurement methodology. There have been some delays in the study which will be completed summer 2009. There will also be a need to consider the energy categories, particularly for reflector lamps.
Ballasts and Luminaires are now covered under the Tertiary Implementing Measures.
Tertiary Lighting
The following timetable provides more detail in terms of the key requirements for lamps/ballasts/luminaires in relation to the specific type of discharge lamp used.
Ballast Directive 2000/55/EC
The EU Ballast Directive requires Ballast Manufacturers to place more efficient ballasts onto the European market, and by implication the Luminaire Manufacturer, Wholesaler and Contractor should follow as stocks are used up.
The purpose of the directive is to keep the wattage of the system comprising the ballast and the lamp as low as possible and reduce energy consumption in this way. All ballasts are assigned to energy-efficiency classes A to D depending on their power loss. The directive also involves the gradual ban on the use of certain ballasts in new lighting installations.
Under the Implementing Measure for Tertiary Lighting, the Ballast Directive 2000/55/EC has been repealed and now comes within the scope of the EcoDesign of Energy Using Products Directive 2005/32/EC.
CE Marking
EU directives according to Article 95 define health and safety minimum requirements for numerous products. Products may only be brought onto the market if they meet all essential requirements of all applicable EU directives and if conformity assessment procedures have been followed.
By affixing the CE mark, the manufacturer declares their compliance with the essential requirements of the relevant EU directives. CE is an abbreviation which stands for Communauté Européenne or Conformité Européenne (French for “European Conformity”).
For example, CE marking on lamp packaging indicates that the product meets the requirements of: 
  1. Low Voltage Directive for Electrical Safety (73/23/EEC as amended by 93/68/EEC).
  2. EMC Directive for electromagnetic compatibility(89/336/EEC as amended by 92/31/EEC).
  3. For household lamps – Energy Labeling directive (98/11/EU).
Household lamps are classified as:
  • Filament lamps (GLS and tungsten halogen)
  • Fluorescent tubes
  • CFLs for use with external control gear
  • CFLs with integral control gear
Energy Efficiency Label (EEL) 98/11/EC & Eco-Label 2002/747/EC
The Energy Labeling Directive tackles the growing energy consumption of household appliances. The purpose of the directive is to draw the consumer’s attention to the actual energy consumption of the appliances and set minimum standards for household appliances. By law, the EU Energy Label must be displayed on all new household products of the following types displayed for sale, hire or hire-purchase:
  • Refrigerators
  • Freezers and fridge-freezer combinations
  • Washing machines
  • Electric tumble dryers
  • Combined washer-dryers
  • Dishwashers
  • Lamps
  • Electric ovens
  • Air Conditioning
If the reader has purchased an electrical appliance in the last 10 years, they will recognise the labeling system which classifies a product between ‘A’ (most efficient) and ‘G’ (least efficient). The EU revised these efficiency classes in 2004 - the old energy efficient classes were retained and new top classes, A+ and A++, were added for Refrigerators and Freezers. As more light sources fall into the ‘A’ Energy Class, the Lighting industry are currently working with the EU to consider better means of identifying energy efficient lamps i.e. adopted the A+ and A++ system or looking at alphanumeric system i.e. ‘A1, A2..’
The Labeling Directive does not apply to:
  • Lamps with a light output in excess of 6500 lm
  • Lamps with an input power of less than 4W
  • Reflector lamps
  • Lamps operated from batteries
  • Lamps not primarily for illumination
The Eco-Label is an official Europe-wide award (voluntary scheme) for non-food products that minimize their impact on the environment. Products must be independently certified, and have to meet strict criteria for all the main environmental impacts across their whole life cycle. The Eco-label Flower is only awarded to goods and services which meet strict criteria limiting the impacts of consumer products on the environment.
Award criteria would specifically be:
  • energy efficiency
  • lifetime
  • lumen maintenance
  • mercury content
  • switch on/off cycles
  • CRI
  • flame retardant content
  • packaging materials
  • user instructions
LIA and its members are working to develop new light sources and reengineer/improve existing light sources so that only the most highly energy efficient lamps remain on the market in the future.
Energy Services Directive (ESD) 2006/36/EC
he purpose of the EU Directive on Energy End Use Efficiency & Energy Services, abbreviated to the “Energy Services Directive” (ESD) 2006 is to enhance the cost effective improvement of energy end use efficiency in Member States. The Directive covers all forms of energy, including electricity, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and other fuels such as coal and heating oil, biomass and transport fuels (except aviation and bunker fuels).
It applies to providers of energy efficiency measures, energy distributors, distribution system operators and retail energy sales companies; and all energy users except those involved with the EU carbon emissions trading scheme aiming to:-
Set a national indicative energy savings target of 9% by 2017Public sector to fulfill an exemplary role in the context of the DirectiveMember States required to place obligations on energy suppliers and distributors to promote energy efficiencyRequirements on metering and billing to allow consumers to make better informed decisions about their energy useL1A Conservation of fuel and power in new dwellings,L1B Conservation of fuel and power in existing dwellings,L2A Conservation of fuel and power in new buildings other than dwellings,L2B Conservation of fuel and power in existing buildings other than dwellings.Commercial Sector - Carbon Trust
The Carbon Trust was set up by Government in 2001 as an independent company. Their mission is to accelerate the move to a low carbon economy by working with organisations to reduce carbon emissions and develop commercial low carbon technologies. More...
The Carbon Trust have 5 methods of working with organisations:-
  1. INSIGHTS - Explaining the issues and opportunities surrounding climate change and carbon reduction, developing low carbon strategies that engage government and business
  2. SOLUTIONS – Delivering practical solutions; works with business and the public sector to identify carbon emissions and find ways of cutting them; and provides the knowledge and resources (including funding) to help them do so
  3. INNOVATIONS - Helping develop low carbon technologies through partnerships, funding, expert advice and large-scale demonstrations
  4. ENTERPRISES - Creating new, low carbon businesses by identifying opportunities and combining key skills and resources
  5. INVESTMENTS - Financing emerging clean energy technology businesses that demonstrate commercial potential
Commercial and industrial lighting consumes an estimated 20% of all electrical energy generated in the UK. In most organisations lighting accounts for around 20-40% of total electricity costs. Installing newer, more efficient systems with good controls can often halve existing lighting costs but even good practice and maintenance of existing systems can often provide lighting energy savings of 30%.
The Carbon Trust promote the use of Light Sources via ENHANCEED CAPITAL ALLLOWANCES (ECA) for products on the  ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LIST (ETL), which details the most Energy Efficient lamps and luminaires available. The ECA scheme provides businesses with 100% first year tax relief on their qualifying capital expenditure. The ETL specifies the energy-saving technologies that are included in the ECA scheme. The scheme allows businesses to write off the whole cost of the equipment against taxable profits in the year of purchase. This can provide a cash flow boost and an incentive to invest in energy-saving equipment which normally carries a price premium when compared to less efficient alternatives. More
Domestic Sector - Energy Saving Trust (EST)
The EST are a non-profit organisation who provide free, impartial advice tailored to suit the consumer, with the aim of helping individuals save money and fight climate change by reducing carbon dioxide emissions within their homes. Lighting is one of the quickest, cheapest and simplest form of saving energy within a domestic dwelling.
The Energy Saving Recommended logo (ESR) appears on products from fridges to integrated digital TVs and is a guarantee that the product is the most energy efficient in its category, it will cost less to run and it will help to prevent climate change. Only the top 20 per cent of products on the market can carry the symbol so it's a clear indicator of excellence. More..
The Phase-Out of Inefficient light bulbs
Inefficient light bulbs are being phased out and being replaced by energy saving lamps. Energy saving lamps are not just traditional Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) but include energy saving version of halogen, linear fluorescent and even LEDs:-
  • Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs): these are the most common energy saving light bulbs and come in stick shape, candle shape, small or medium screw and bayonet fittings
  • Energy saving halogen light bulbs: a good option if a consumer already has halogen lights in their home. They consume around 30% less electricity than standard halogen bulbs
  • LED lights: these have progressed rapidly in recent years and can now be used to replace existing halogen spotlights.The first LED lamps will be endorsed under the ESR scheme by April 2009.
The savings: energy and money
Fitting just one energy saving light bulb can save on average £3 a year - and by swapping all the light bulbs in a home for energy saving ones, could save around £45 per year. Right now, the vast majority of the 600 million light bulbs in UK homes are inefficient tungsten filament bulbs. By phasing out these inefficient bulbs, we could make a real difference to our national energy consumption.
Environmental legislation
The Climate Change Levy
This levy was brought in under the Finance Act 2000 as a direct result of the Earth Summit in Rio 1992 and Kyoto in 1997 and commits the UK to reducing its emission levels by 20% by 2010. Section 30 and Schedule 6 and 7 of this Act make provisions for a new tax called the Climate Change Levy, which aims to achieve a balance between environmental objectives and administration, by organising energy industries and minimising the compliance costs to business. It is chargeable on the industrial and commercial supply of taxable commodities for lighting, heating and power by consumers of various business sectors. The following are taxable commodities:
  • Electricity
  • Natural gas
  • Petroleum and hydrocarbon gas in a liquid state
  • Coal and lignite
  • Coke and semicoke
  • Petroleum coke
ISO 14001
ISO 14001 is a series of international standards on environmental management. It provides a framework for the development of an environmental management system (EMS) and the supporting audit programme and is intended to be applicable to all types and sizes of organisation. The main thrust for its development came as a result of the Rio Summit on the Environment held in 1992.
An EMS such as ISO14001 enables an organisation to achieve conformance with the policy and objectives and demonstrate conformance to others. The key elements are a commitment to compliance with applicable legislation and commitment to continuous improvement.
A lighting company with ISO14001 will demonstrate it manages it’s emissions to air, land and water; for example with waste (to land) it will have a procedure for complying with the WEEE regs by financing the cost of recovering and treating waste CFL’s; with air emissions it will have a procedure for managing the emission of mercury vapour in the production process of CFL’s.
PAS 2050:2008
PAS 2050 (Publicly Available Specification) is the specification for the assessment of the life cycle of Greenhouse Gas Emissions of goods and services. Launched on the 29th October 2008, PAS 2050 builds on the existing life cycle assessment standards ISO 14040 and 14044.
The aim is to provide a common approach so that the carbon footprint of products and services is conducted on a consistent basis and provides transparency and effective comparison as a basis for decision making within the supply chain and for the consumer.
This is a joint initiative between BSI, Defra and the Carbon Trust.
Hazardous Substances
The RoHS and WEEE Directives
The Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive were published at the same time and are linked in purpose. The WEEE Directive is aimed at reducing the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment destined for landfill, whereas the RoHS Directive is aimed at eradicating certain hazardous substances from new Electrical and Electronic Equipment, in the first instance.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) 2002/96/EC
The WEEE Regulations aim to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, and increase recovery and recycling rates. The WEEE Regulations require Producers of Electrical and Electronic Equipment and their Compliance schemes to finance and put systems in place to ensure the treatment (including recycling) of separately collected WEEE. UK Lamp Producers can meet the obligations of Producers of Gas Discharge Lamps via membership of a Compliance Scheme. There are certain requirements for WEEE relating to:
  • separate collection, disposal and recycling
  • standards for its treatment at authorised facilities
  • collection, recycling and recovery targets
Not all lighting falls under the requirements of the WEEE Directive. The following are within scope:-
  • Luminaires for fluorescent lamps
  • Straight fluorescent lamps
  • Compact fluorescent lamps
  • High intensity discharge lamps, including pressure sodium lamps and metal halide lamps
  • Low pressure sodium lamps
  • Other lighting or equipment for the purpose of spreading or controlling light with the exception of filament bulbs
Incandescent and Halogen lamps and luminaires utilised in household are excluded from the requirements of the WEEE Directive.
Reduction of hazardous substances (RoHS) 2002/95/EC
The RoHS Directive prevents all new electrical and electronic equipment placed on the market in the EU from containing lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, poly-brominated biphenyls (PBB) or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), except in certain specific applications, in concentrations greater than the values decided by the European Commission. These values have been established as 0.01% by weight per homogeneous material for cadmium and 0.1% for the other five substances.
All categories/types of lighting fall under the scope of RoHS including Incandescent and Halogen lamps and luminaires utilised in household.
REACH is a new European Union regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals. It came into force on 1st June 2007 and replaces a number of European Directives and Regulations with a single system. REACH has several aims:
  • To provide a high level of protection of human health and the environment from the use of chemicals.
  • To make the people who place chemicals on the market (manufacturers and importers responsible for understanding and managing the risks associated with their use)
  • To allow the free movement of substances on the EU market.
  • To enhance innovation in and the competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry.
  • To promote the use of alternative methods for the assessment of the hazardous properties of substances i.e. QSAR and read across
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